This is a e-book edition of Buddhist Legends: Books 1–26 by Eugene Watson Burlingame. It was originally published as part of the Harvard Oriental Series and is now available in print from the Pali Text Society. The translation is in the public domain, although this e-book edition is strictly for free distribution.
This e-book edition contains the complete set of origin stories to the verses of the Dhammapada as found in the Pali commentaries. The original print publication contained summaries of each story along with an introduction and index.
The language style is very readable despite being close to one hundred years old. A few Dhamma terms are somewhat incorrectly translated, such as “returning thanks” instead of “rejoicing in merit” for anumodana. As with any old translation the reader should be cautious.
There are still many typos left over from the scanning process, although it is quite readable. The footnotes are especially error prone. Check back to this page for future updates.
Booklet PDF, print double sided onto 8.5×11 paper and fold to make a booklet (choose “flip on short edge” in printer settings). This edition does not include the story summaries or footnotes from the original.
Bhikkhu Pesala has revised the translation of the verses and commentary stories and made it available as both an Epub and PDF on aimwell.org. If you need a version to read on a Kindle, you can easily use software called Calibre to convert the epub into mobi.
Note: Please do not re-distribute these files as corrections/improvements are made from time to time. Please just link to this page.
This translation of the Dhammapada by Venerable Acharya Buddharkkhita is highly regarded by many for both it’s accuracy as well as readability. It’s prefect to use for reading the Dhammapada as a daily practice. There are currently two editions in circulation:
The most recent is currently published by the Buddhist Publication Society. They have a regular and pocket version, both in paperback including the Pali as well as the translation. See the Source Page for ordering information. A must for every sutta library.
An older edition, originally published in 1985, is now available widely on line for free distribution. All of the digital versions found on this site originate from the one on AccessToInsight.org. Even though this edition does not include the revisions in the one mentioned above, it is still very usable. You can also find this translation on SuttaCentral.net.
1985 Edition, Free Electronic versions:
E-books: Kindle/Mobi, Epub
This version includes the introduction by Bhikkhu Bodhi as well as the footnotes. To ensure proper font rendering, choose the correct version for your device. Note: the table of contents may not render properly on e-pub reading devices.
The following two versions only include the Dhammapada verses themselves. Be sure to read Bhikkhu Bodhi’s introduction to this translation, not included in this version. (For a print version of the the introduction, see the next item)
Booklet format PDF: This version can be printed double sided onto 8.5×11 paper and then folded into a booklet (choose “flip on short edge” in printer settings)
Although it is recommended that you do your sutta reading practice from a book and not from the computer, using an e-book reader in some circumstances might work as well as a paper book.
For the purpose of these recommendations, an e-book reader refers to a device that is dedicated to just reading books, such as a Kindle or a Nook. It’s true that you can read e-books on an iPad, iPod, Blackberry, or cell phone, but all of those devices are similar to computers in their connectedness and potential for distraction. Of course, in a pinch, better to read from one of those than nothing at all.
If you don’t already have an e-book reader, then by all means, just stick with paper books. If you begin to do sutta study as well as sutta practice, you will need to work from paper books.
Benefits of using an e-book reader
E-books are hard to navigate. They are really designed for people reading novels, which is always done one page after another. This is, in fact, the way we approach the text as a reading practice, not wanting to get distracted by flipping around here and there.
They are light weight, so if you are walking back and forth when you are reading it is quite convenient.
They are extremely portable, so you can easily take it with you and keep up your practice when traveling.
You can potentially download your text and start right away.
A growing number of texts are available for free.
Checking the hyper-linked footnotes is quick so it doesn’t pull you away from the text for very long.
Some e-book readers have a text-to-speech function that might be helpful if the hindrances are strong. Of course, the reading will be mechanized and is no substitute for listening to actual recordings of the suttas.
Some e-book reading devices allow you to highlight passages and later transfer them to another document. This works well if you do feel compelled to take notes.
You can increase the text size. This is a general quality of all e-book readers but worth mentioning none the less.
E-book readers usually have a built in dictionary. This is beneficial as translators are often forced to use somewhat uncommon English words.
Disadvantages of using an e-book reader
Frequently (especially in the Wisdom Publications Nikaya editions) passages that appear in multiple suttas are left out with a remark such as “as Sutta 4, §27”. It is quite cumbersome, as noted above, to navigate to that passage involving potentially dozens of page turn clicks. It is especially important for the first three or four times we are reading a book to read those missing parts.
Even within a sutta, repetitions are frequently left out and it is not as easy to read them back in as it would be in a paper book.
When a note refers to a previous note, there is usually no hyper link from the footnote itself so looking it up is near impossible.
It is impossible, without lots of clicking, to determine how long a sutta is or how much you have left to read. If you have to modify your reading order slightly to accommodate your daily schedule, this would be very hard in a book like the Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha.
Unless you have highlighted it, it is nearly impossible to flip back through suttas previously read to find a passage.
You loose the physical reminder of the book in your life. When you have a real book sitting somewhere special in your house you will see it and remember your practice.
You loose the physical memory trigger of where a sutta or passage is located in the book. Because the idea is to work with a text over a lifetime, when you work with a paper book eventually you will have a sense of where a sutta is located, or even where an important passage falls on the page. With an e-book that is not so easy to do. This may be offset by the ability to do a word search if you can remember the exact word used and it doesn’t appear hundreds of times.
Because of the extreme difficulty in navigation to find elided(condensed) text, people just starting out may want to use e-books only as a backup, especially for the Wisdom Publication editions. If you are working with a book that has smaller suttas, such as the Dhammapada or the Udana, this may not be so much of an issue. Similar with an anthology such as In the Words of the Buddha. And having an e-book version of your text as a backup for when you travel is very convenient.
For practice, a paper book is perfect. So if you don’t already have an e-book reader, just stick with the paper versions.
If you do use an e-book reader for your practice, you may want to consider trying the Don’t Break the Chain tool to have a physical reminder of your commitment and history.
The Dhammapada is an excellent text for a daily sutta practice. The verses are packed with material for contemplation as well as implementation. The reading can usually be done in as little as five minutes a day plus as much reflection time as you are able to give. If you do not have an established sutta practice, this is a great text to begin with both because of the breadth and depth of the teaching as well as being very accessible. It is also very easy to commit to reading one chapter a day and develop this habit and hunger for the suttas.
Choosing a translation
If you are a Theravada Buddhist, it is important to use a translation of the Dhammapada that accurately reflects Theravada doctrine. Because of the pithy language of the original Pali text, it is easy for a translator from a non-Buddhist tradition to subtly insert concepts that are incompatible with the Dhamma. Be careful of books called “versions” or “renderings” as they sometimes play fast and loose with important concepts.
The following are good translations to use in terms of adhering to Theravada teachings:
All three are available on-line in some form but, as always, try to work directly from a book for your daily practice. To get a feel for which translation you like, read the same chapter in each one and pick the one that is most appealing. They are all good so there is no need to spend too much time laboring over your decision. Better just to get started. By reading a chapter every day you will be able to complete the book in less than a month so after several cycles of a single translation you can always try another one. If you stick with your favorite over several years you will begin to memorize important verses simply by repeated contact.
The easiest practice is to read one chapter per day. This has several advantages:
You will always have time to do this practice. (See the 2nd P) The only reason to miss a day is if you forget. There is always five minutes to read the Dhamma, no matter what your life is like.
There will always be at least one verse that you understand and connect with. In this way you will always have something to contemplate.
You can read the entire Dhammapada in less than a month, fourteen times in one year.
The last chapter is about twice as long as the rest, so you may want to split that one and read it over two days.
After having done several cycles with one chapter a day, you may want to try reading the same chapter each day for a week. This will allow you to work more deeply with the verses. In this way you will read it a total of seven times in six months.
You could also simply read until you find a verse that strikes you and then contemplate on it for some time. Mark where you stopped with a post-it flag and pick up there the next day. In this way you will be sure to cover everything eventually.
Make it your story
The ancient commentaries contain a record of the events that lead the Buddha to utter each verse. These are an excellent source of inspiration and understanding.
For a sutta practice, however, it is beneficial to imagine how the Buddha might have uttered these verses as a result of events in our own lives. Can you remember a time when you were caught in an argument, causing much suffering for yourself and other people? How would it have been for the Buddha to have appeared and uttered verse number 6:
6. There are those who do not realize that one day we all must die. But those who do realize this settle their quarrels. A. Buddharakkhita, trans.
Imagine what it would have been like to hear the teachings in that moment. This is how we make the suttas come alive. When we do this, it will be easier to remember to bring these teachings to mind the next time a dispute arises.
Keep it a sutta practice
The Dhammapada is also an excellent text for deeper textual study, Pali language study, and even comparing different translations. However, during your designated practice time, try to work with the text on a personal, experiential level. To this end it is beneficial to:
Stick with a single translation at a time, at least for a year. The translations listed above will be useful to illuminate areas for personal cultivation and reflection.
Just read the text and not the background stories at least for the first three or four cycles.
Focus on implementation not interpretation.
As you are reading you will come across many passages that talk about arahants, fully enlightened beings. This may not always be obvious because the language used is generally non-technical. But it may be clear that it is talking about someone who has reached a high level of perfection. We have to use these verses to lift up our hearts, fill them with happiness knowing that such a state is possible, and that the path leading to that state was taught by the Blessed One. These are our heroes and we need to get to know their qualities very personally.
As with any sutta practice, try to connect it with a regular daily activity. Really commit to reading every day. This will give you a lot of energy for your understanding and keep the Dhamma constantly in your life. Consider using the Don’t Break the Chain technique. And remember this can be a perpetual practice, so always begin again.
Some of these verses will surely end up in your Personal Anthology. And even if you haven’t started a Personal anthology, you can easily use the Almost Anthology technique with the Dhammapada, simply flagging verses as you find them.
As a great religious classic and the chief spiritual testament of early Buddhism, the Dhammapada cannot be gauged in its true value by a single reading, even if that reading is done carefully and reverentially. It yields its riches only through repeated study, sustained reflection, and most importantly, through the application of its principles to daily life. Thence it might be suggested to the reader in search of spiritual guidance that the Dhammapada be used as a manual for contemplation. After his initial reading, he would do well to read several verses or even a whole chapter every day, slowly and carefully, relishing the words. He should reflect on the meaning of each verse deeply and thoroughly, investigate its relevance to his life, and apply it as a guide to conduct. If this is done repeatedly, with patience and perseverance, it is certain that the Dhammapada will confer upon his life a new meaning and sense of purpose. Infusing him with hope and inspiration, gradually it will lead him to discover a freedom and happiness far greater than anything the world can offer.